Browsing slowing to a crawl, the inability to stream, dropped Wi-Fi signals, wireless dead zones—every one of these problems is maddening in a world where getting online has become, for some, as necessary as breathing. Well, maybe not that critical, but important. If the only way you can get decent reception is to be in the same room as your wireless router, these simple tips can help optimize your network.

Distance is the most obvious problem—there is a certain optimal range that the wireless signal can travel. If the network has to cover an area larger than the router is capable of transmitting to, or if there are lots of corners to go around and walls to penetrate, performance will take a hit. Interference is also a big issue, especially for those who live in densely populated areas. Signals from other wireless networks and electronics can impact speeds, as can physical obstructions, such as walls. Many phone systems and other wireless devices can also interfere with signals. This is a good thing to consider when you are shopping for a new phone system—many of them use DECT 6.0 nowadays, which coexists very nicely with standard Wi-Fi networks.

It’s also possible the problem isn’t interference or other networks. Is there a chance you have unwanted guests piggybacking on your network? You can always look at your router’s administrator interface to see how many devices are connected. Or use a network analyzer tool to see if you have unknown machines on your network. If it’s an open network, close it. Set up security—preferably WPA2, as WEP isn’t as strong—and put in a strong password that’s hard for others to guess.

There are many other reasons why your connection may be less than ideal. Fortunately, we have some troubleshooting tips to help, and many of them won’t cost you a dime.

1. Update Your Router’s Firmware
Perhaps your router just needs an update. Router manufacturers are always tweaking software to eke out a little more performance and speed. How easy—or how hard—it is to upgrade your firmware depends entirely on your device manufacturer and model. Most current routers have the update process built right into the administration interface, so it’s just a matter of hitting a firmware upgrade button. Some models, particularly if they’re older, still require you to first find and download the firmware from the router manufacturer’s website. It’s tedious, but still a good thing to do.

2. Optimal Router Placement
Not all rooms and spaces are created equal. The fact is, where you place the router can affect your wireless coverage. It may seem logical to have the router inside a cabinet and out of the way, or right by the window where the cable comes in, but that’s not always the case. A wired router can be tucked away, out of sight, out of mind. A wireless router, on the other hand, needs open spaces, away from walls and obstructions. It’s not just physical obstructions either; heavy-duty appliances or electronics running in close proximity can impact Wi-Fi performance.

If your router has external antennas, orient them vertically to bump up coverage. Elevate the router if you can. You can mount it on a wall, or put it on top of a shelf or a table to get a better signal.

3. What’s Your Frequency?
Take a look at your network’s administrator interface, and make sure you have it configured for optimum performance. If you have a dual-band router, you’ll likely get better throughput by switching to the 5GHz band instead of using the more common 2.4GHz band. If nothing else, you will likely encounter less interference from other wireless networks and devices because the 5GHz frequency is not as commonly used. Switching is quite simple. See if your router’s administrator interface offers 5GHz. If it does, enable it, and set up the network as you would normally.

4. Change That Channel
Ever play with walkie-talkies as a kid? You may remember how if the units weren’t on the same channel, you couldn’t hear each other. Or if you wound up on a different channel, you could listen in on someone else’s conversation on a completely different set. Same thing with baby monitors.

In the same vein, all modern routers are multichannel, so they can switch across different channels when communicating to your devices. You tend to use whatever the router default is, but if neighboring wireless networks are also using the same channel, then you are going to encounter signal congestion. On Windows-based PCs, you can see what channels neighboring Wi-Fi networks are using. From the command prompt (in Windows 7) if you type netsh wlan show all, you will see a list of all wireless networks and the channels being used in your vicinity. At PC Labs, for instance, most of our networks and those of our neighbors are using channels 6 and 11.

Once you know what channels are in use, pick one that’s less congested and manually switch your router to broadcast on that channel. You can find this setting in your wireless network’s administrator interface. While the interface differs by device and manufacturer, you will generally find the option under the basic wireless settings category.

5. Control Quality
Most modern routers come with Quality-of-Service (QoS) tools to limit the amount of bandwidth that apps use. This is handy if you do lot of video streaming or use Voice over IP (VoIP) often. The last thing you want is to have your video or call quality degrade just because someone is downloading a gigantic video file from Dropbox. You can, for example, specify which applications and services get priority, and set downloaders as lower priority at certain times of the day. Sure, it will take longer to get that file, but everyone else on the network will thank you. QoS settings can typically be found under advanced settings in the network’s administrator interface. Some routers may even make it easier by offering a multimedia or gaming setting, so you know those applications will be prioritized.

6. Replace Your Antenna
If your router has an internal antenna, adding an external one would be a good idea, as the latter tends to send a stronger signal. Many router manufacturers sell omnidirectional antennas, which send a signal to all directions, or directional ones, which send a signal in one specific direction. Most built-in antennas tend to be omnidirectional, so if you are buying an external one, it should be marked “high-gain” to actually make a difference. A directional antenna tends to be a better option, since odds are that you aren’t experiencing weak spots in your network in every direction. Point your external antenna in the direction of your weak spot, and it will broadcast the signal accordingly. Check your router manufacturer’s website for details on how to buy them.

7. Set Up a Wireless Range Extender
Perhaps it’s just a matter of room size. All routers are only capable of broadcasting reliably up to a certain distance. Any further, and the signal gets weak. If your wireless network covers a large area, you need a wireless range extender—also known as a wireless repeater or a Wi-Fi expander—to help boost your signal. This is also a good idea if there are thick walls or other physical structures that block signals.

The range extender looks similar to a router, but it works differently. For starters, it picks up the existing Wi-Fi signal from your wireless router and just rebroadcasts it. As far as your network router is concerned, the range extender is just another client with an IP address, much like your laptop. Even though it’s not a router, you should still use the same rules when figuring out where to put the extender. It should be close enough to your main network router to pick up a good signal—80 percent or more is a good rule of thumb—but close enough to the weak spots of the network so that the repeater actually can do its job.

8. Add Access Points?
For an alternative to extenders, consider access points (APs). These can get really expensive, but they work together to create a mesh network, in which each unit transmit signals to each other, creating a strong and stable wireless network. APs are ideal if you are covering a large space, like multiple floors or even a campus with different buildings